Rabu, Oktober 31, 2007

Artikel dari The Penang File, Nov 2007

Lim Kean Chye, salah seorang tokoh yang ditemubual dalam dokumentari 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' telah menulis sebuah artikel berkenaan filem tersebut di laman web yang dikendalikannya, The Penang File.

Fahmi's documentary: Ten Years Before Merdeka
by Lim Kean Chye


THE TWISTED HISTORY of Malaya almost invariably portrays Malaya as a country of hostile peoples facing one another with fear and hatred. Its picture of the post-war period after the Japanese surrender is of a divided people governed by a benevolent Britain honestly trying hard to reconcile racial animosities and to create a viable united nation. But the truth is that there were in fact two groups - the pro British and the anti British who wanted freedom, one might conveniently call it right wing against left wing. The left was inspired by the Indonesian battle against the Dutch for independence and the role of the Soviet Union in defeating fascism and the downfall of Churchill and the ascendancy of the British Labour Party. They noticed that even the returning British soldiers were singing Soviet songs.

There was no doubt that the left were in the majority and they were demanding "merdeka." Among them were the MIC. The right were the palace pro-British elements led by Dato Onn in Johore and in Perak by the Dato Panglima Bukit Gantang and clutter of very small clubs and associations whose timid slogan was "Hidup Melayu" that disdained challenging British rule.

The documentary "Ten Years Before Merdeka" by Fahmi Reza has pierced the mist of disinformation to reveal from the National Archives the story of the united front against British colonial rule ten years before August 31, 1957, especially, of the coalition known as the PUTERA-AMCJA. That the narrative was done by some actors still alive to tell the story is a tribute to the grinding work of searching and researching that he and his team must have done.

The film explains the Peoples Constitutional Proposals of 1947, the culmination of the resistance to the naked restoration of the 1940 British colonial rule, and the smashing of the left by mass arrests, led by the detention of 10,000 Malays. The British feared the Malay nationalists above all else for they knew that they could only rely on the support of those around the palaces. While Ho Chi Minh in French Indo-China had maintained his armed forces, the British agent Lai Te, otherwise Wright, ordered the MPAJA to surrender their arms, ensuring the supremacy of his returning masters.

Tan Cheng Lock

The film missed emphasising the immense significance of Tan Cheng Lock, the chairman of the PUTERA-AMCJA. That is largely my fault and I make amends here.

Tan Cheng Lock (later Sir Tan Cheng Lock) was British to the bone. A wealthy man with interests in rubber and banking, he was a Straits Settlements Legislative Councillor from Malacca, at the same time as my father who was appointed from Penang. He was a loyal Straits Born British Chinese. To understand him, we have to look at the loyal Chinese of 1945. They were shocked by the British running away and leaving them to an uncertain, fearful future under the Japanese; they began to look at the British with different eyes. Lim Ewe Hock's "A Straits British Chinese Discovers Himself," published in March 1946, neatly epitomises their anguished awakening. (see The Penang File - Archives - jul-2004 - page1135). It is not surprising that when the Malayan Democratic Union was formed at the end of 1945 it won the immediate support of Raffles College graduates, the so-called cream of the English educated. Lim Tay Boh, Goh Keng Swee, Yong Nyuk Lin, Eu Cheow Chye, Seow Cheng Fong were among the majority who supported us, openly or clandestinely. The minority, who disdained the "disloyal" anti-colonialists, even voted against the setting up of a university when the graduates, meeting as the Stamford Club, debated the Carr-Saunders Commission. That they were only able to muster three votes against exposed the comedy of their size.

The older generation, such as C C Tan in Singapore, rallied around John Laycock, the English solicitor. In Penang, Heah Joo Seang ran to London to plead desperately for Penang to remain a crown colony.

Cheng Lock came back from India, to which country he had fled when the Japanese invaded, a rather changed man. He was very impressed by Nehru and Gandhi and the Indian independence movement. I went to see him in Malacca and after a few talks formed the definite impression that he would support us in our work for self-government. He was very interested in the Malayan Democratic Union which he was convinced was not communist (being well connected, he had his sources of information) and asked a few questions to clear up in his mind that we were not puppets of the communists, the trade unions, and youth and women's movements nor stooges of the Malay groups. The significance of Cheng Lock agreeing to be chairman can never be exaggerated. He dissolved the hesitancy among many border liners and even persuaded the local Chamber of Commerce to come out in support of the general strike - the hartal, something which we had never heard of and learnt from Cheng Lock, who urged us to use a weapon he had seen in action while in India.

Shut down

The film did not lie about the success of the hartal. We effectively shut down the country for one day. A circular, issued by the chief secretary to the government, on September 19,1947 is enough to prove this. It read:

"Whatever a hartal might signify in Malay, the Chief Secretary desires to make it quite clear that if any Government servant absents himself from his duties in the public service with the real or ostensible object to bringing pressure to bear on Government on a political issue, not only will such officer forfeit his pay for the period of his absence, but he will be dealt with under the disciplinary regulations of the service."
They were not sure even of their civil service.

The colonial office with the colonial cataract in the eye took no notice of the Constitutional Proposals and went ahead with their "negotiations" with a rump UMNO and the Sultans. The hartal failed to break their resolve. They retaliated with mass arrests.

Sumber: The Penang File, Issue 56, November 2007

Artikel dari akhbar New Straits Times, 31 Okt 2007

by Koh Lay Chin

Film maker Fahmi Reza's documentary 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' has brought forth a lot of positive reaction from viewers and this has really spurred him on.

IT was a hot month for London, but all I wanted was one letter.

With the Free Burma protests, anti-war march and one mammoth postal strike all busting out around the same time, it felt trivial to be longing for just the mail.

I finally received one almost three weeks after I arrived, and I loved it like a winning lottery ticket.

The postal strike, which took place nationwide over workers’ grievances over pay and working practices, cost UK businesses hundreds of millions of pounds and irritated more than a few Britons.

The workers dealt Royal Mail a massive blow with rolling 24-hour strikes which started early October, and it was reported that there was a backlog of 200 million undelivered letters and parcels.

Unused to this appalling delay, I was frustrated. Unused to strikes, I was bewildered. How long can a strike last anyway? Don’t they know I need my student discount cards pronto? My British friends were more resigned to it, speaking about it with a mix of annoyance and acceptance. Generally, they hated the disruption, but understood the situation. After all, they’re not neophytes to pickets.

The tendency to strike is also commonplace in their neighbour, France, where its citizens are even more ardent and attuned to the concepts of protest and resistance. In the face of heavyweight strikes which debilitate the country, the French seem to be peeved and proud at the same time; their heritage demands nothing less.

Is the concept of labour strikes now so alien to Malaysians, who have not seen a major strike since 1962? Back then, 9,000 railway workers went on strike to demand the conversion of their daily rated wages to monthly salaries. This event lasted 22 days, eventually resulting in the government acceding to their wishes. Sure, there were other minor ones, but not many have registered in popular memory.

These days, the Malaysian trade union roar is gone, with what some call generally smooth industrial relations, with cases resolved through peaceful negotiation and dialogue.

But perhaps the memory of that roar holds an air of nostalgia for the older generation, and a mystique for the country’s youth. And perhaps it is this curiosity and mystique that has fuelled interest in young film maker Fahmi Reza’s documentary Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka, which tells the controversial struggle for independence from British colonialism.

It won the “Most Outstanding Human Rights Film” at the Komas Freedom Film Fest last month, and was shown at various screenings nationwide to the delight of young and old alike.

The documentary, shot in a delightfully modern style but rich with historical detail, has introduced the word “hartal” to Malaysians who had no inkling of it before.

The hartal, described fondly by several octogenarians interviewed in Fahmi’s piece, was a mass protest in 1947 that involved a total shutdown of workplaces, offices and shops in Malaya and Singapore — the first political action that united all races and different groups.

Malay nationalist groups, middle-class English speakers, women, labour unions, Chinese Chambers of Commerce, Indian organisations and others took part.

Fahmi’s 35-minute visual compiles events leading to the hartal, mainly the realisation of an independent Malaya and the publication of a People’s Constitution drafted by Putera-AMJCA (Pusat Tenaga Rakyat-All Malaya Council of Joint Action), an alternative constitution to challenge the Federation Constitution.

There were plenty of write-ups in the media about Fahmi’s work, but it was the positive reaction of the crowds watching his piece that really spurred him on.

The documentary is now easily found online, after much public demand, and the 30-year-old history buff has been more than happy to provide more screenings.

I first saw the documentary last month, before I left for London, but unfortunately could not stay to watch the whole piece. By the time I finished watching it online some time later, there was a warm buzz about the piece and many friends were asking why we hadn’t know about the hartal until now.

Now, this is not to say young Malaysians who watch the documentary are likely to flip out at their employers, baying for blood, or stay away from work a la the French. In fact, it seemed less about the protest and more about the coming together of the different sectors of society that truly enthralled viewers.

In a nation that has been lamenting about youth apathy (such as the 4.5 million eligible to vote who have not registered), it’s reassuring that they have started taking an interest in history.

Isn’t it infinitely more heartening to know young Malaysians are trying to find out more about their country, than to obsess over Britney Spears’ latest indiscretion? Fahmi spent many years of dedicated research because of his zest and love for history.

Somehow my three-week grumbling for my mail seems a little embarrassing in comparison.

NST journalist Koh Lay Chin is on a master’s programme at the London School of Economics.

Sumber: Akhbar New Straits Times, 31 Oktober 2007

Selasa, Oktober 30, 2007

10tahun di Sekolah

'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' telah ditayangkan buat pertama kali untuk 130 pelajar tingkatan 3 di sebuah sekolah menengah di Penang pada 29 Oktober 2007. Soalan pertama yang pelajar-pelajar ini utarakan semasa sesi diskusi, "Kenapa sejarah ini tak ada dalam buku teks?"

Foto oleh Syarifah Hadli

Puisi Perjuangan: Marilah! (1946)

oleh Harun Aminurrashid

Marilah saudara kita berjuang,
Jangan kira penat dan wang,
Semangat takut dan ragu lekaslah dibuang,
Sementara lapangan lagi terluang.

Marilah saudara kita bersatu,
Perubahan kaum tolong dan bantu,
Berdermalah kepada yatim piatu,
Pergerakan kaum masuk sekutu.

Marilah kita berpadu terus,
Di zaman nasib sedang tirus,
Hindarkan perasaan yang kurang lurus,
Supaya maju seperti harus.

Marilah kita berikat erat,
Buang kotor kikislah karat,
Bersatu kita laut dan darat,
Supaya terangkat barang yang berat.

Marilah kita terus bergerak,
Kumpulkan segala tenaga yang terserak,
Himpunkan segala kekuatan yang berjarak,
Ke medan kemenangan kita beranak.

Sumber: Majalah Hiburan, Dis 1946

Jumaat, Oktober 26, 2007

"Unity, Liberty, Equality"

Kenyataan akhbar sempena ulangtahun pertama penubuhan Malayan Democratic Union (MDU) pada 21 Disember 1946.

On this, the occasion of the first anniversary of the founding of the Malayan Democratic Union, permit me to offer the President, the Executive Committee and members my cordial congratulations, coupled with the earnest prayer that the Union, which occupies a unique position in this country in that it embraces all race, will have a giant growth as an organisation pledged to help to bring to fruition the ideal of a democratic self-government in a United Malaya, in which the different racial elements comprised in its domiciled population shall be ensured equality of status and rights.

Emancipation from oppressive conditions, whether they be political, social, or economic can only be won at the price of personal endeavour. National progress must be attained by definitely organised and carefully concerted endeavour. Success needs to be achieved – it cannot be granted or conferred.

Unless every one in a population regards not only his selfish interests but also concerns himself with his share of the collective interest, self-government or good government is not possible.

We have set a movement on foot at aiming at winning our freedom by making Malaya one country and one nation with a common destiny for its peoples animated by a spirit of brotherhood and active co-operation for mutual help and benefit in all spheres of life. There is no other alternative if we Malayans of all races are intent upon facing reality and securing the supreme political goods of liberty and justice.

Trade, travel, migration and intercourse of all kinds being of the very texture of human life on this planet throughout the history of mankind, there is no such thing even in the modern world as a homogenous national state.

Further, the geographical position of Malaya, a rich and underpopulated land with easy reach of the overcrowded countries of China, India and Java, has made a mixed population inevitable.

Even in a mixed population the different communities, while being politically united, can maintain their own intellectual, cultural and spiritual life.

A political philosopher has affirmed that in a population of mixed communities if the Government assigns no privilege to any one of them and chooses its instruments indifferently from all; in the course of a few generations, identity of situation often produces harmony of feeling and the different races come to feel towards each other as fellow countrymen; particularly if they are dispersed over the same tract of country.

So Malaya can become one country and one nation if the right principles and policy are followed, and the three principles by which we stand may be condensed in the motto ‘Unity, Liberty and Equality.’

In concrete form the three fundamental principles resolve themselves into, firstly
(a) a United Front of Malayan peoples based on inter-communal concord and joint action; and
(b) the political unification of the whole of Malaya, inclusive of Singapore, as a unitary state in all essential respects under one central government;
secondly, a measure of self-government, providing for
(a) a Central Legislature of a United Malaya with substantial elected unofficial majority; and
(b) the exercise of the executive power by a Ministry responsible to the Legislature and all matters of internal and civil administration;
and thirdly, the equality of status and rights for all those who regard Malaya as their real homeland and the object of their single-minded devotion and loyalty.

Responsibility to the governed is the greatest of all securities for good Government.

Malayans of all races! Unite to achieve “Merdeka” or freedom – for only in unity lies our salvation.

Di atas merupakan kenyataan yang ditulis oleh Tan Cheng Lock sempena ulangtahun pertama penubuhan Malayan Democratic Union (MDU) pada 21 Disember 1946. Kenyataan ini telah diterbitkan sepenuhnya dalam akhbar The Malaya Tribune bertarikh 16 Disember 1946 di bawah tajuk "Malayans - Unite To Achieve Merdeka (Freedom) - Stand By 3 Principles of Unity, Liberty, Equality".

Enam hari selepas kenyataan ini keluar, pada 22 Disember 1946, Pan-Malayan Council of Joint Action (PMCJA) telah ditubuhkan untuk membantah Perlembagaan Federation, di mana Tan Cheng Lock telah dijemput untuk menjadi Pengerusi.

Sumber: Akhbar The Malaya Tribune, 16 Disember 1946

Artikel dari akhbar Sunday Tribune, 26 Okt 1947

by Sunday Tribune Reporter

Over 140,000 workers throughout Malaya took part in the pan-Malayan hartal last week, and it showed the co-operation of labour in matters of importance, said Mr. Tse Tong, Chairman, speaking at the second anniversary of the Singapore Federation of Trade Unions yesterday.

Setting out the progress of the Federation in the past years, the speaker drew attention to the favourable conditions it had to pass through.

Despite Government’s ruling that government servants were not to join unions (he said) the Federation was enjoyable the support of those who had to leave the Federation on that account.

Mr. P.J. Steel, Registrar of Trade Unions, said that “Government servants are servants of the public and therefore they cannot join any individual union.”

Capital and labour (he said) were not opposing each other; both should work in close harmony and co-operate for mutual benefit.

Mr. Mitra, speaking on behalf of the Indian Regional Congress, said labour should not actively dabble in politics. He thought it should not do so until it reached a certain standard of efficiency.

To this extent, it should be labour’s aim to seek means to promote basic education, as “democracy is impossible unless you have a certain standard of efficiency.”

A representative of the Pan-Malayan Federation of Trade Unions, Mr. Ganapathy, expressing dissatisfaction over the Wages Commission’s Report, suggested that it would be advisable to request for Parliamentary Mission to visit Malaya, study labour conditions, and make final reports on wages.

Another speaker, Mr. Eu Chooi Yip, Secretary of the Malayan Democratic Union, said:- “Workers must realize that in order to achieve their economic demands and to improve their living standards they should take an active interest in the politics of this country.”

By so doing (he added) they would not only be safeguarding their interests and what rights they now had, but also safeguard what rights they were going to gain in the future. Referring to the Labour Party in England, the speaker said that that party derived all its financial support from trade unions and Government should not forbid trade unions from setting apart finances for political purposes.

Trade unionism, both in Singapore and Malaya had made tremendous progress, and now embraced workers of all races, he added.

Representatives of various other organisations, and unions also spoke on the significance of the day, the gathering was treated to light refreshment.

Sumber: Akhbar Sunday Tribune, 26 Okt 1947

Pengisytiharan Hartal dibaca oleh Lim Kean Chye

Laporan pengisytiharan hartal se-Malaya PUTERA-AMCJA dalam akhbar The Straits Echo 6 Okt 1947 dibaca oleh Lim Kean Chye.

Klip video ini juga memberi jawapan kepada siapa sebenarnya yang bertanggungjawab mencadangkan aksi hartal kepada PUTERA-AMCJA! Seorang tokoh yang sangat progresif pemikirannya pada waktu itu.

Keratan akhbar The Straits Echo bertarikh 6 Oktober 1947.

Khamis, Oktober 25, 2007

Pengisytiharan Hartal dibaca oleh Zainuddin Andika

Laporan pengisytiharan hartal se-Malaya PUTERA-AMCJA dalam akhbar Utusan Melayu 6 Okt 1947 dibaca oleh Zainuddin Andika.

Pengisytiharan Hartal dibaca oleh Hashim Said

Laporan pengisytiharan hartal se-Malaya PUTERA-AMCJA dalam akhbar Utusan Melayu 6 Okt 1947 dibaca oleh Hashim Said.

Pengisytiharan Hartal dibaca oleh Yahya Nassim

Laporan pengisytiharan hartal se-Malaya PUTERA-AMCJA dalam akhbar Utusan Melayu 6 Okt 1947 dibaca oleh Yahya Nassim.

Pengisytiharan Hartal, 6 Okt 1947

Akhbar Utusan Melayu bertarikh 6 Okt 1947 telah menyiarkan kenyataan pengisytiharan hartal se-Malaya yang dikeluarkan oleh PUTERA-AMCJA di dalam laporan yang bertajuk "Hartal Seluruh Malaya 20 Oktober - PUTERA dan Majlis Bergerak Serentak Jawab MacDonald"

Rabu, Oktober 24, 2007

Tayangan 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' di Utara

Kehadapan rakyat jelata sebelah utara tanahair di Perlis, Kedah, Penang, Kelantan dan Terengganu. 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' ingin ditayangkan di negeri kamu!

Aku akan berada di lokasi2 ini di tarikh2 berikut:

Isnin, 5 Nov 2007: ALOR STAR, KEDAH
Selasa, 6 Nov 2007: KANGAR, PERLIS
Rabu, 7 Nov 2007: KOTA BHARU, KELANTAN
Khamis, 8 Nov 2007: KELANTAN
Sabtu, 10 Nov 2007: TERENGGANU
Ahad, 11 Nov 2007: KUANTAN, PAHANG

Cuma masalahnya aku tak tahu nak tayangkan kat mana? Jadi di sini aku meminta bantuan dari kamu untuk tolong anjurkan tayangan filem 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' di balai raya, dewan masyarakat, sekolah, universiti, kolej, sekolah pondok, warung kopi, rumah kedai, reban ayam, "open house" hari raya, majlis perkahwinan, kilang, pejabat ataupun di rumah kamu sendiri!

Kalau tak ada projektor, tengok kat TV pun boleh. Kamu organise, dan aku akan datang. Boleh adakan sesi tayangan dan diskusi sekali. Aku akan sediakan flyers dan poster untuk kamu sebarkan, dan warwarkan dalam laman blog ini.

Ayoh! Ayoh! Bergerak sekarang dan jemput aku datang! Email jemputan kamu kepada aku di fahmireza@gmail.com

Artikel dari malaysiakini, 24 Okt 2007

oleh Amin Iskandar

20 Oktober adalah satu tarikh “Keramat” yang seharusnya diingati dan dikenang oleh rakyat Malaysia kerana 60 tahun yang lalu, pada 20 Oktober 1947, telah berlaku satu peristiwa bersejarah yang menyaksikan rakyat di Malaya menggunakan kekuatan demokrasi mereka.

Peristiwa ini telah mengubah lanskap politik di Malaya yang sekarang ini dikenali sebagai Malaysia. Pada ketika itu, Pusat Tenaga Rakyat (PUTERA) dan All Malayan Council of Joint Action (AMCJA) telah melancarkan Hartal diseluruh Malaya untuk membantah Perlembagaan Persekutuan yang diusulkan oleh Penjajah British untuk Malaya.

Mengapa PUTERA-AMCJA membantah Perlembagaan Persekutuan yang diusulkan oleh Penjajah British?

Alasannya mudah. Sesebuah negara yang merdeka perlulah mempunyai Perlembagaan yang ditulis oleh rakyatnya sendiri. Perlembagaan yang ditulis haruslah mencerminkan aspirasi rakyat yang merdeka dan bukannya mengekalkan kepentingan penjajah.

Secara logiknya, jika kita benar-benar merdeka, mengapa Perlembagaan Persekutuan perlu didraf oleh penjajah? Apakah penjajah British benar-benar ikhlas untuk memberi kemerdekaan atau mahu meneruskan penjajahan dalam bentuk baru?

Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan Hartal?

Hartal (juga sebagai Hartaal) adalah satu terma yang digunakan di India untuk mengambarkan tentang tunjuk perasaan ataupun bantahan yang digunakan secara meluas dalam perjuangan rakyat India untuk menuntut kemerdekaan dari penjajahan British.

Mogok umum

Hartal adalah mogok umum yang melibatkan pemboikotan bekerja dan melakukan urusan harian secara total. Apabila berlakunya Hartal, semua tempat-tempat berjalannya urusan harian seperti pejabat, kedai runcit, kedai makan, mahkamah, akan ditutup.

Hartal adalah salah satu bentuk “civil disobedient” yang dilakukan untuk menuntut sesuatu perkara ataupun membantah sesuatu perkara. Ia adalah satu tindakan untuk menuntut kerajaan, pemerintah ataupun penjajah untuk menukar sesuatu keputusan yang tidak popular ataupun menindas rakyat.

Baru-baru ini, Fahmi Reza seorang aktivis dan pekerja seni telah memenangi salah satu anugerah dalam Freedom Film Festival 2007. Filem dokumentarinya yang bertajuk “Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka” menceritakan peristiwa politik yang berlaku di Malaya pada ketika itu.

Dokumentari yang menceritakan tentang perjuangan bersejarah PUTERA-AMCJA ini juga turut memuatkan temuramah dengan lima orang tokoh seperti Yahya Nassim dari Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya (PKMM), Zainuddin Andika dari Angkatan Penuda Insaf (API), Majid Salleh dari Johore State Federation of Trade Unions (JSFTU), Hashim Said dari Angkatan Pemuda Insaf (API) dan Lim Kean Chye dari Malayan Democratic Union (MDU).

Dalam temuramah dengan lima orang tokoh ini, mereka telah menceritakan tentang perstiwa bersejarah Hartal yang telah menggemparkan penjajah British dan mempopularkan Perlembagaan Rakyat yang diusulkan oleh PUTERA-AMCJA.

Perlembagaan Rakyat yang progressif dan adil kepada semua kaum, telah diserang secara habis-habisan oleh penjajah British dengan menggunakan media dan kemuncaknya apabila darurat diisytiharkan.

Dengan menggunakan alasan memerangi komunisme, British telah menangkap dan memenjarakan ramai tokoh politik kiri dan mengharamkan PKMM, API, AWAS, GERAM, MDU dan beberapa lagi pertubuhan politik progresif tanahair.

Dokumentari Fahmi Reza

Sepuluh tahun selepas Hartal, kemerdekaan negara telah diberikan oleh penjajah British kepada Umno, MCA dan MIC dalam keadaan darurat masih lagi berjalan. Undang-undang darurat itu telah ditukar namanya kepada Akta Keselamatan Dalam Negeri (ISA) pada tahun 1960 dan masih lagi digunakan oleh kerajaan Malaysia sehingga hari ini.

Mujurlah masih ada anak muda yang cintakan sejarah. Usaha beliau membuat penyelidikan yang rapi dan akhirnya berjaya menghasilkan sebuah dokumentari yang padat dengan fakta-fakta sejarah yang tidak diberi tempat di media-media arus perdana dan buku teks sejarah. Untuk maklumat yang lebih lanjut mengenai dokumentari ini, sila layari blog Fahmi Reza di http://10tahun.blogspot.com.

Enam puluh tahun selepas Hartal dan 50 tahun selepas merdeka, rakyat Malaysia masih lagi membincangkan mengenai kebebasan bersuara, kebebasan berpersatuan, kebebasan media, perpaduan kaum, sensitiviti agama, pilihanraya yang bebas dan banyak lagi isu-isu yang telahpun dibincangkan 60 tahun yang lalu.

Peristiwa seperti Tragedi Batu Buruk pada 9 September 2007 di Terengganu di mana dua orang awam ditembak oleh polis dengan menggunakan peluru hidup, mengingatkan saya satu babak dalam filem “The Legend of Bhagat Singh” di mana perhimpunan aman untuk menuntut kemerdekaan yang dianjurkan oleh pejuang kemerdekaan di India, telah diganasi oleh penjajah British dengan tembakan.

Memang benar, pada hari ini jumlah bangunan yang ada di Malaysia jauh lebih banyak daripada apa yang ada pada zaman penjajahan. Kalau dilihat dari luaran, Malaysia adalah antara negara membangun yang berkembang dengan pesat dan cepat.

Tetapi realiti kehidupan majoriti rakyat Malaysia pada hari ini yang dibebani dengan harga barang keperluan yang tinggi sedangkan pendapatan rendah, menyebabkan hanya segelintir rakyat kelas atasan yang merasai nikmat kemakmuran ekonomi selepas merdeka.

Situasi ini tidak banyak bezanya dengan kehidupan di zaman penjajah dahulu. Pada waktu itu, majoriti rakyat Malaya hidup dalam kesusahan dan hanya golongan atasan yang mengecapi kemakmuran ekonomi.

Semangat Hartal

Dari segi demokrasi pula, tahun 1947 jauh lebih demokratik daripada situasi di Malaysia pada hari ini. Pada ketika itu, untuk menubuhkan sesuatu persatuan atau parti politik tidaklah sesukar hari ini. Hari ini kita dibebankan dengan birokrasi dan syarat-syarat yang ketat oleh Pendaftar Pertubuhan.

Media juga bebas untuk melaporkan peristiwa-peristiwa yang berlaku walaupun ianya bertentangan dengan penguasa. Sebagai contoh Peristiwa Hartal pada 20 Oktober 1947 telah diberikan laporan muka hadapan oleh Utusan Melayu ketika itu. Ini sudah tentu tidak berlaku jika sekali lagi Hartal dilakukan pada zaman ini.

Peristiwa Hartal yang dianjurkan oleh PUTERA-AMCJA 60 tahun yang lalu telah membuktikan bahawa dengan menggunakan pendekatan yang aman, rakyat mampu menujukkan kekuatan.Yang penting ialah sesuatu isu itu harus jelas diperjuangkan tanpa politiking sempit yang mampu memecah belahkan.

Tanpa adanya kemudahan komunikasi yang hebat seperti hari ini, seperti internet, telefon bimbit, Poslaju dan faks, Hartal telah berjaya dilakukan di seluruh Malaya.

Semangat Hartal harus terus dihidupkan kembali agar perjuangan untuk menuntut demokrasi sejati di Malaysia akan berjaya satu hari nanti.

Sumber: malaysiakini.com

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kongsi itu kuasa!

Selasa, Oktober 23, 2007

Artikel dari majalah KLue, Okt 2007

Remembering A Time of Progressive Civil Action, The Hartal of 1947
by Fahmi Fadzil

Sixty years ago this month, Malaya saw one of the most astonishing feats of civil disobedience – a Malaya-wide hartal. It was organised by a coalition of progressive elements (PUTERA-AMCJA) in the then politically sleepy Malayan society, and was designed to act as a clarion call to Malayans to reject the Federation Constitution as proposed by the British Colonial administration. These progressive nationalists believed that the proposal was created without having first referred to the majority of Malayans, and therefore was seen to favor certain (political and business) interests over others. They countered it with their own People's Constitution (a deftly crafted document, no less).

In case we weren't so familiar with what this act of civil disobedience is (this being a country where a party of five is considered an illegal public gathering), a hartal refers to a complete work stoppage, or a general strike, as a mark of public discord with their government. For the duration of the hartal, no businesses, public transportation, or any other form of economic activity would operate. Some of the most public proponents of this non-violent act of civil disobedience was Mahatma Gandhi, who used it to great effect in the Indian struggle for independence from the British Crown.

So, on 20th October 1947, Malayans of all walks of life (barring the few factions who were seen to be colluding with the British) participated in the hartal by not participating in economic life. Pasars were empty. Goods laid quietly on ships or on the docks at the ports. Trains, buses, becas did not move.

Still the British played "dunno". They had learned from the Indian experience to not let their now biggest dollar earner slip away, especially since WWII nearly emptied out the British coffers.

Only a year later, in 1948, in order to "confront the communist insurgency" in Malaya, the Emergency was declared. All manner of draconian laws were put into place to stifle the growing popularity of the progressives. Various parties were banned, their members arrested and silenced. Malayans fought the law... and the law won.

Less than 10 years later, Independence was given ("on a golden platter", some who were silenced have commented) by the British to Malaya.

Fast forward to 2007.

A cursory glimpse at the most recent editions of high school history textbooks show a complete lack of acknowledgment for this period in the national struggle for independence from the British. Not only is the episode left largely unprocessed (What does it mean to have almost the entire Malayan population saying "No" to the Federation Constitution? Who were the people saying "Yes"? Who stood to gain from this?), it appears best that it is forgotten altogether. History should be written by the victors.

Or should it?

Not any more. After 50 years of independence, perhaps it is time to look back at the graves of our past, at the buried Malaya that could have been. More importantly, let us consider the actions of those who have erected these graves of our national conscience and memory, and let us unearth these stories and re-tell them for the sake of the present. Why were these memories buried? Who stood (and continues) to gain from a constant climate of national forgetting? What is so wrong with remembering our past?

Presently, a young filmmaker has tried to bring the past back, to see if we can figure some of these stories out for ourselves. Last 14th September, Fahmi Reza screened his short documentary, 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka', about the struggles of the political left for an independent Malaya. You can learn more about the documentary, where it will be shown next, as well as about the hartal of 1947 itself from his blog http://10tahun.blogspot.com.

Sumber: Majalah KLue, Isu 108, Okt 2007

10tahun di Monash

Foto oleh Yeoh Seng Guan

Bangunan baru, bilik tayangan besar, alatan audio-visual serba canggih... malangnya crowd tak seberapa. 8 orang saja penuntut yang datang untuk tayangan 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' tadi. Mungkin tajuk filem ni tak cukup menarik untuk tarik orang datang menonton. Crowd paling kecil setakat ni. Tapi aku tak kisah, kalau sorang saja yang datang pun aku tetap akan layan.

Walau apa pun, sesi diskusi tetap menarik. Seperti biasa aku akan mula dengan bertanya soalan2 seperti "Jadi, apa fikiran korang tentang filem tadi?" dan "Siapa kat sini yang tak pernah tahu pun pasal sejarah ni?" diikuti dengan "Kenapa korang rasa sejarah ni tak dimasukkan dalam buku teks sejarah sekolah?"

Untuk soalan terakhir tu, seorang gadis berkaca mata telah menjawab, "Revolusi." Semua orang tergelak sambil menoleh ke arahnya, menantikan penjelasan. Gadis itu menyambung, "Ya lah, mereka tak mahu kita tahu pasal People Power, tentang sejarah rakyat yang bersatu untuk buat perubahan. Sebab kalau rakyat tahu, susah mereka nanti."

Apa korang fikir?

Artikel dari akhbar The Sun, 23 Okt 2007

Sebuah artikel tulisan Ng Tze Yeng yang menyentuh tentang 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' dan Hari Hartal. Klik sini atau gambar di bawah untuk baca.

Sumber: Akhbar The Sun, 23 Okt 2007

Isnin, Oktober 22, 2007

Terjemahan artikel dalam akhbar 光华日报 (Kwong Wah Yit Poh), 12 Oktober 2007

Berikut merupakan terjemahan kepada artikel dalam akhbar Kwong Wah yang keluar sebelum Aidilfitri tempoh hari. Terima kasih kepada Ginie Lim yang telah membantu dengan terjemahan. Klik sini untuk membaca artikel asal: 完整的历史真相

oleh Ng Miew Luan

Fahmi Reza telah membawa filem dokumentarinya "Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka" ke Pulau Pinang pada Sabtu dan Ahad lepas. Dokumentari sejarah yang mengambil masa 33 minit ini telah mendedahkan sejarah perjuangan kemerdekaan negara oleh gerakan kiri, yang selama ini tercicir dari buku teks sejarah di sekolah, melalui penceritaan bekas pejuang-pejuang kemerdekaan.

Siapakah Fahmi? Saya tidak mengenali dia. Pertama kali saya bertemu dengan dia adalah ketika dia hadir untuk tayangan "Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka" di Han Chiang College. Dia adalah penerbit serta pengarah filem itu. Ketika berdiskusi selepas tayangan filem, Fahmi yang sekadar memperkenalkan dirinya sebagai pekerja seni dalam blognya (http://10tahun.blogspot.com), mengatakan bahawa dia tamat pengajian tinggi di sebuah universiti di US.

Setelah menonton filem pertama Fahmi ini, saya serta seorang wartawan veteran sepakat kata bahawa dia adalah seorang anak muda yang bijak.

Menurut Fahmi, buku teks sejarah telah mencatitkan sejarah rakyat menentang Malayan Union pada tahun 1946, serta sejarah penubuhan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948, namun tercicir pula sejarah perjuangan kemerdekaan dan kempen hartal yang dipelopori oleh AMCJA-PUTERA pada tahun 1947, sekali gus kandungan Perlembagaan Rakyat yang terbentuk pada tahun 1947.

Ramai generasi muda hari ini berpeluang menimba pengalaman dan pengetahuan di luar negara. Maka munculah golongan muda kaum Melayu seperti Amir Muhammad dengan filemnya "Lelaki Komunis Terakhir" dan "Apa Khabar Orang Kampung", serta Fahmi Reza dengan filemnya "Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka", yang berusaha mengembalikan detik-detik sejarah negara penting yang cuba dihapuskan oleh kuasa pemerintah.

"Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka" telah memberikan kita pengajaran dan iktibar yang penting: Sejauhmanakah kita dapat percayai sepenuhnya maklumat dalam buku teks sejarah?

Sebagai anak rakyat Malaysia, adalah wajar kita persoalkan: Siapakah yang memiliki kuasa dan kemudahan untuk mentafsirkan sejarah? Adakah maklumat buku teks lengkap? Mengapakah sebahagian sejarah dalam buku teks dihapuskan secara sengaja?

Memang tidak dapat dinafikan bahawa pemerintahlah yang memiliki kuasa untuk mentafsirkan sejarah. Salah satu contoh ialah nama bekas Ketua Menteri Pulau Pinang dan pengasas MCA Dr Lim Chong Eu telah dilucutkan daripada senarai bekas Presiden MCA sehingga baru-baru ini namanya dipulihkan dalam sejarah MCA.

Sekiranya sejarah sesebuah parti dapat diputarbelitkan sewenang-wenangnya, maka negara dengan jenteranya yang begitu besar, sememangnya dapat memadamkan sebahagian sejarah negara dengan mudah.

Masyarakat kita memerlukan ramai lagi orang muda seperti Fahmi dan Amir Muhammad yang kembali ke negara untuk mencari kebenaran sejarah setelah menerima zat-zat demokrasi yang secukupnya di luar negara.

Malangnya, suratkhabar yang sepatutnya mencatitkan sejarah perkembangan masyarakat masih dikawal ketat sehingga hari ini, dan makin lesu fungsinya. Sejarah lisan pula berperanan sebagai rujukan kepada sejarah penulisan. Nampaknya jikalau kita ingin melakarkan sebuah lukisan sejarah yang lengkap, kita mesti sanggup berdada lapang dan menerima pelbagai maklumat dan pandangan yang berbeza.

Sumber: Kwong Wah e-Newspaper, 12 Oktober 2007.

Tayangan 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' di Kuala Lumpur

Tarikh: Khamis, 25 Oktober 2007
Masa: 9:00 malam
Tempat: Palate Palette Restaurant & Bar (Upstairs Lounge), 21 Jalan Mesui, off Jalan Nagasari, 50200 Kuala Lumpur
Info: 03-2142 2148 / hello@palatepalette.com

'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' akan ditayangkan dalam acara Anything Goes, Anything Shows! anjuran Palete Palette. Turut ditayangkan ialah filem 'She's My Son' oleh Indrani Kopal dan 'Forgotten' oleh Ong Boon Keong.

Tonton promo di bawah dari NTV7 untuk melihat ketiga2 pengarah bercakap tentang filem masing2.

*Special offer: Bring along your thumbdrive/external harddisk to copy 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' DVDRip .vob file (1.6GB) or 600x480 .avi file (287.4MB) from me for free!

Tayangan 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' di Monash University

Tarikh: Selasa, 23 Oktober 2007
Masa: 12:00 tengahari
Tempat: Plenary Theatre, Ground Floor, Monash University, Bandar Sunway, PJ

Perhatian kepada penuntut Monash University dan Sunway University College! Jangan lepas peluang untuk menonton filem dokumentari pendek 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' dan turut serta dalam sesi diskusi bersama aku selepas tayangan itu nanti. Ayuh, jumpa di sana!

Ahad, Oktober 21, 2007

Slogan Hartal PUTERA-AMCJA

Pada 15 Oktober 1947, PUTERA-AMCJA telah mengeluarkan 12 Slogan/Cogankata Hartal kepada pihak media, merumuskan sebab-sebab utama hari hartal dijalankan untuk digunakan oleh rakyat dalam poster serta sepanduk menjelang hari hartal nanti. Berikut merupakan 12 slogan/cogankata hartal yang disiarkan menerusi akhbar Malaya Tribune bertarikh 16 Oktober 1947 dan akhbar Utusan Melayu bertarikh 17 Oktober 1947.

1. October 20 is hartal day!
2. On October 20 you must support the People’s Constitutional Proposals of PUTERA-AMCJA!
3. All communities unite against the revised constitutional proposals on October 20!
4. The Revised Constitutional Proposals are against the interest of all communities!
5. All communities must make the hartal a success on October 20!
6. Defeat the divide and rule policy by complete unity on October 20!
7. Join the hartal for your own benefit on October 20!
8. The People’s Constitutional Proposals are democratically drawn up by the people’s representative!
9. The People’s Constitutional Proposals fight for the interests of all who regard Malaya as their home!
10. The Revised Constitutional Proposals were undemocratically drawn up by the 12 Man Committee!
11. The Revised Constitutional Proposals will only benefit the British imperial government!
12. Victory to the PUTERA-AMCJA action on October 20!

1. 20 Oktober ialah hari hartal!
2. Pada 20 Oktober kamu harus sokong cadangan-cadangan Perlembagaan Rakyat yang disusun oleh Majlis Bergerak Serentak dan Pusat Tenaga Rakyat!
3. Segala bangsa bersatulah menentang cadangan-cadangan Perlembagaan yang dipinda oleh pemerintah pada 20 Oktober ini!
4. Cadangan-cadangan Perlembagaan yang dipinda itu menentang kepentingan rakyat jelata!
5. Tiap-tiap bangsa harus menjayakan hari hartal 20 Oktober!
6. Leburkan dasar pecah-belah kemudian memerintah dengan satu-padu pada 20 Oktober!
7. Bersama-samalah menjayakan hartal untuk kepentingan kamu pada 20 Oktober ini!
8. Cadangan-cadangan yang disusun oleh rakyat sendiri adalah berdasarkan demokrasi!
9. Cadangan-cadangan Perlembagaan Rakyat memperjuangkan hak tiap-tiap seorang yang mensifatkan Malaya sebagai tanahairnya!
10. Cadangan-cadangan Perlembagaan yang dipinda oleh Jawatankuasa 12 Orang itu mencabul kedaulatan rakyat!
11. Cadangan-cadangan Perlembagaan yang dipinda oleh pemerintah hanya menguntungkan penjajahan British!
12. Berjayalah PUTERA dan Majlis Bergerak Serentak Se-Malaya pada 20 Oktober!

Sumber: Akhbar Malaya Tribune, 16 Oktober 1947 dan akhbar Utusan Melayu, 17 Oktober 1947

Panduan Hartal PUTERA-AMCJA

Pada 8 Oktober 1947, PUTERA-AMCJA telah mengeluarkan Panduan Hartal kepada pihak media, memberi penerangan kepada rakyat tentang langkah-langkah untuk berhartal. Berikut merupakan teks dari Panduan Hartal yang disiarkan menerusi akhbar The Straits Echo bertarikh 15 Oktober 1947.

October 20 has been declared Hartal Day, or our Day of Protest against the Government’s Revised Constitutional Proposals and our Day of Support of the People’s Constitutional Proposals.

This day must therefore be a complete success. The hartal must be observed strictly and properly everywhere.

In order to ensure that this is accomplished, it is essential that in every State, every town, every district, and every kampong, there must be at least one week of active propaganda preceding October 20.

That is, from October 13 to October 20, in every State, town, district and kampong, every means possible must be employed to ensure that ALL the people understand the nature of the hartal, why the hartal is being called, why the date October 20 has been chosen as Hartal Day, how the hartal is to be observed, what are the dangers of the Government’s Revised Constitutional Proposals, why the People’s Constitutional Proposals must be accepted by the Government, etc.

This means that October 20 will come as the CLIMAX to many days of intensive and active propaganda.

October 20 is the day on which the people of Malaya will be called upon to stage the greatest political demonstration that this country has ever seen.

October 20 must therefore be a complete success.

Here are a few suggestions as to how you should carry out the programme outlined above.

In every town, district and kampong, representatives of the organisations affiliated to the Putera and the All-Malaya Council of Joint Action, and the representatives of organisations which are against the Government’s Revised Constitution, must meet, and plan their campaign in the week preceding October 20 – Hartal Day.

The first thing to be done is to arrange that certain organisations must be responsible for propaganda among the Indian people; certain organisations must be responsible for propaganda among the English-speaking section…

These organisations must call meetings, arrange discussions, or debates, or lectures concerning the Government’s Revised Constitution, and explaining the Proposals.

These organisations must set up Propaganda Corps to tour the towns, and districts and kampongs explaining to the people about the hartal, and why it has been called, and what a hartal is, and how the hartal is to be observed, and why October 20 has been chosen as Hartal Day, and why the Government’s Revised Constitution is undemocratic and dangerous to their welfare, and how the People’s Constitutional Proposals will benefit them, and why the People’s Constitutional Proposals should be supported.

At all these meetings, and in all the propaganda, it must be emphasised, at all time, that a hartal is a PEACEFUL and VOLUNTARY method of making a political protest against the undemocratic and harmful policy of the Government.

At all those meetings, and in all the propaganda, it must be emphasised that the workers in the public essential services are not asked to join actively in the hartal, but are asked to issue statements saying that they are in sympathy with the hartal.

At all these meetings, and in all the propaganda, it must be emphasised that the best way of observing the hartal is to remain indoors on October 20, from six in the morning until midnight.

It is urged upon all the members of associations affiliated to the Putera and the All-Malaya Council of Joint Action that they spend October 20 inside the premises of their various unions and associations, studying and discussing the People’s Constitutional Proposals.

It is also advised that our supporters and sympathisers, in all the States and towns and districts and kampongs, should write in to all the newspapers, in every language, supporting the hartal, and urging and advising the people to observe the hartal.

It is also necessary that after the hartal, the various Hartal committees set up in every town and district and kampong, should make a report about the way the hartal was observed in their respective areas. This report should be sent into the Secretary, Putera-All Malaya Council of Joint Action, 59, Klyne Street, Kuala Lumpur.

Finally, ONE WORD OF WARNING. There will undoubtedly be attempts, by hostile elements, to spoil the peaceful and voluntary nature of our hartal. In every State, town, district and kampong therefore, you must be on your guard against such elements, who in many cases will pretend to belong to one of the organisations affiliated to the Putera and the All-Malaya Council of Joint Action. You must see to it that the attempts of these bad elements are not successful. YOU MUST REMEMBER THAT IF THEY PROVOKE YOU AND YOU RETALIATE THEN THEY HAVE SUCCEEDED IN SPOILING THE NON-VIOLENT NATURE OF THE HARTAL. Therefore you must practise, and you must call upon the people to practise, proper and dignified self-control on that day. They must not retaliate, no matter how great is the provocation.

The best way to achieve this, is that they should remain indoors during the whole of October 20, from six in the morning until midnight. This will greatly lessen any chance of the hostile elements meeting with success in their evil task.

Sumber: Akhbar The Straits Echo, 15 Oktober 1947

Manifesto Hartal PUTERA-AMCJA

Pada 7 Oktober 1947, PUTERA-AMCJA telah mengeluarkan Manifesto Hartal kepada pihak media, mengisytharkan tarikh 20 Oktober sebagai Hari Hartal Se-Malaya. Berikut merupakan teks dari Manifesto Hartal yang disiarkan menerusi akhbar The Straits Echo bertarikh 7 Oktober 1947.


The Putera and the All-Malaya Council of Joint Action call upon all those who regard Malaya as their real home, to observe October 20, 1947 as a Day of Protest against the Revised Constitutional Proposals, by staging a Malaya-wide hartal on that day.

October 20 has been selected as the Day of Protest because it is on that day that the British Parliament is scheduled to begin its Autumn session, during which it is reported that a debate on the constitutional issue in Malaya will take place.

On October 20, therefore, between the hours of six a.m. and midnight, all those who regard Malaya as their real home and who support the People’s Constitutional Proposals issued by Putera and the All-Malaya Council of Joint Action, are asked not to carry out their usual occupations, but to remain indoors throughout the day and night.

You are asked for one day to cease work in order to demonstrate to government that you reject the undemocratic Revised Constitutional Proposals, and in order to carry our struggle for acceptance of the People’s Constitutional Proposals one step further.

But all workers in the essential public services, though we know that they are in full sympathy with us, are requested not to join us in hartal, though we do ask them to issue statements declaring that they are in full sympathy with the hartal.

The carrying out of the Malaya-wide hartal, or general stoppage of work for one day, has been forced upon us by the obstinate and undemocratic attitude of Government, which seems fixed on imposing on Malaya its Revised Constitutional Proposals, although every effort has been made to show that these Proposals are not accepted by the people.

One year ago, on October 14, 1946, at a reception in Malacca to Governor-General, Mr. Malcolm MacDonald, the Chairman of the All-Malaya Council of Joint Action, Mr. Tan Cheng Lock warned the Governor-General that if government tried to present the people of Malaya with a fait accompli on the constitutional issue, then the people would have no alternative but to undertake passive resistance and non-cooperation with Government.

The history of the past year shows that Mr. Tan Cheng Lock’s fears were fully justified. All our attempts, in the shape of memoranda, mass meetings throughout the length and breadth of Malaya, and drawing up the People’s Constitutional Proposals, have been ignored by the Government.

We have, therefore, to carry our struggle one step further and make this Malaya-wide hartal on October 20, an unqualified success.

We ask our sympathisers throughout the country to remember that hartal is essentially a voluntary, peaceful and non-violent in nature. We ask them to keep strict watch in every town, kampong and village, for irresponsible elements who may be instructed by sources hostile to us, and the cause we represent, to make trouble. These elements should be exposed as soon as they try to sabotage the voluntary and peaceful nature of the hartal.

We advice the people to do their marketing for October 20 on the previous day, so that they will not be inconvenienced.

We advice our supporters and sympathisers as far as possible to spend October 20 indoors, and preferably in the premises of their various associations, parties and trade unions, studying the People’s Constitutional Proposals.

Finally, we call upon all those who regard Malaya as their real home to remain calm, peaceful and tolerant on October 20 – our Day of Protest – confident in the justice and final success or their cause.

Sumber: Akhbar The Straits Echo, 7 Oktober 1947

10tahun di Kajang

Tanggal 20 Oktober 2007, aku telah menyambut Hari Hartal ku dengan berkunjung ke rumah Yahya Nassim untuk tayangan istimewa filem 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' untuknya.

Inilah kali pertama beliau melihat filem ini.

Duduk di atas kerusi rodanya menghadap televisyen di ruang tamu, beliau berseloroh selepas 5 saat filem aku dipasang, "Itu siapa tu?" sambil menuding telunjuknya ke arah tv.

Aku menjawab "Itu Uztaz Yahya lah tu!" Kita sama-sama tertawa.

Beliau tersenyum setiap kali mukanya terpapar di kaca televisyen. Selepas tamat menonton beliau bersuara, "Filem ni tekniknya bagus... suara, gambar, muzik, semuanya padan. Kalau dilihat oleh orang UMNO ni, apa rasanya mereka kata ya?"

Selamat Hari Hartal Uztaz Yahya Nassim. Terima kasih atas sumbanganmu.

Sabtu, Oktober 20, 2007

Utusan Melayu, Isnin 20 Oktober 1947


Singapura 19 Oktober — Malaya akan berhartal mulai pukul enam pagi esok sampai dua belas tengahmalam.

Pagi-pagi tadi orang ramai bersibuk membeli beras di pasar atau di kedai untuk bersedia kerana hari Isnin. Pasar-pasar telah sesak luar dari biasa pagi tadi. Pukul sembilan pagi tadi, Pusat Tenaga Ra’ayat cabang Singapura dan Gabungan Persatuan Buruh Singapura bahagian Melayu mengadakan satu perjumpaan besar di restoran kita untuk memberi penerangan tentang hartal. Anggota-anggota yang bergabung dengan PUTERA telah sibuk bekerja seminggu lamanya memberi penerangan ke kampung-kampung tentang erti dan maksud hartal.

Syarahan-syarahan telah diadakan manakala surat-surat sebaran dalam bahasa Melayu memberi penjelasan tentang hartal telah dibahagikan pada rakyat.

Dalam penerangan-penerangan itu, mereka menegaskan bahawa hendaklah disiplin cara damai dalam menjalankan hartal dipegang betul-betul oleh rakyat.

Sementara itu bagi pihak pemerintah pula pihak yang berkuasa polis seluruh Malaya telah pun menyatakan bahawa mereka telah siap sedia menghadap sesuatu kemungkinan yang buruk pada hari hartal esok.

Bilangan orang-orang polis yang akan berjaga esok akan ditambah dan sekali lagi pihak-pihak yang berkuasa polis menyeru kepada orang ramai supaya memberitahu padanya jikalau mereka diugut dan diancam pada hari hartal itu.

Dalam lapangan perkhidmatan pengangkutan kota pula pihak buruh Traction Company nampaknya berkeras hendak ikut berhartal.

Gabungan Persatuan Buruh Singapura telah meminta persatuan-persatuan yang bergabung dengannya berjumlah 73 buah itu supaya jangan bekerja pada hari hartal itu.

Buruh perkhidmatan-perkhidmatan Municipal yang bekerja dalam pejabat-pejabat pengangkut najis dan sampah, memperbaiki jalan-jalanraya, gas, pembersih bandar dan anti-malaria adalah difahamkan akan berhartal juga.

Lebih kurang 1,000 orang buruh yang bekerja dalam jabatan-jabatan elektrik dan air telah diminta oleh persatuan buruhnya supaya menggunakan bijak pandai masing-masing iaitu sama ada mahu berhartal atau tidak adalah terserah pada mereka.

Perkhidmatan bas antara kampung Melayu dan Geylang Seraya serta Geylang ke Changi khabarnya tidak akan berjalan pagi ini.

Kita tidak tahu sama ada semua pekhidmatan-perkhidmatan bas “private” akan membatalkan perkhidmatannya selama sehari esok tetapi Tuan Lee Kong Chian, pengurus Dewan Perniagaan Cina semalam telah meminta supaya syarikat-syarikat bas tersebut merundingkan soal sama ada mereka mahu berhartal atau tidak.

Taukeh-taukeh bas mengatakan bahawa mereka suka berkhidmat pada hari hartal itu tetapi takut kalau buruh mereka tidak mahu datang pada hari itu.

Gudang-gudang perniagaan bangsa Eropah menyatakan bahawa buruh mereka sanggup bekerja pada hari hartal iaitu seperti Warren Brasres, Robinsons, Borneo Motorist dan Frasier and Neave.

Kedai-kedai di luar bandar Singapura difahamkan akan tutup mengikut perintah persatuan masing-masing.

Sementara itu, Council Cina di Kuala Lumpur Tuan A.C.T. Kwong telah berseru kepada orang-orang Cina supaya jangan mengacau keamanan pada hari hartal itu untuk muslihat memelihara persaudaraan antara bangsa di negeri ini.

Di Penang Persatuan Buruh Muslim telah mengeluarkan kenyataan bahawa buruh India Muslim akan bekerja pada hari hartal.

Dewan Perniagaan Cina Singapura telah membahagikan 35,000 surat siaran kepada semua kedai-kedai dan persatuan-persatuan yang bergabung di bawahnya supaya berhartal esok.

Naib Pengerusi Dewan Perniagaan Cina mengatakan semalam bahawa mereka akan turut berhartal kalau saudagar-saudagar lain berhartal esok.

Sementara itu Persatuan Pekerja-pekerja Dalam Rumah-rumah Singapura bahagian Melayu Singapura dalam persidangannya pada malam 15 haribulan kelmarin di rumah persatuannya nombor 26 Friendship Street telah mengambil keputusan akan menyertai pemogokan hartal esok.

Sumber: Akhbar Utusan Melayu, 20 Oktober 1947

Artikel dari akhbar Utusan Melayu, 20 Okt 1947


Singapura hari Ahad – Suatu persidangan penerangan berkenaan dengan pemogokan hartal telah diadakan dengan cukup memberi puas hati di restoran kita, Singapura pada pagi ini oleh Pusat Tenaga Rakyat dan Gabungan Kesatuan Buruh Singapura.

Majlis persidangan itu telah diketuai oleh Saudara Abdul Karim Zafar dan ucapan pembukaan ia telah menerangkan serba sedikit tujuan persidangan itu.

Kemudian Saudara Abdullah Zawawi dari PUTERA telah memberi penerangan yang lanjut berkenaan dengan hartal serta menjelaskan mana-mana yang belum jelas akan tujuan-tujuan PUTERA berkenaan dengan hartal itu. Ia telah menerangkan juga isi-isi Perlembagaan Rakyat yang dikehendaki supaya diterima oleh pemerintah.

Saudara Abdullah CD dari Gabungan Kesatuan Buruh Singapura telah memberi ulasan dan penerangan yang lanjut berkenaan kedudukan hartal itu dikalangan buruh demikian juga ia menyebut dan menerangkan kedudukan buruh dalam perlembagaan yang dibuat oleh PUTERA dan Majlis Bergerak Serentak atas kemahuan rakyat itu.

Setelah berlaku beberapa soal jawab dan penerangan-penerangan yang memuaskan diberi maka sekaliannya nampak faham dan menunjukkan simpati dan persetujuan mereka menyokong, mengikut cara dan kebolehan masing-masing.

Saudara Abdul Karim menutup majlis dengan meminta supaya penerangan-penerangan yang diberi itu disampaikan kepada orang ramai dan juga ia meminta supaya langkah-langkah yang diambil pada menyelenggarakan hartal itu tidak berlaku dengan paksa atau kekerasan ketenteraman dan keamanan hendaklah diutamakan.

Ramai wakil-wakil dari kesatuan-kesatuan buruh dan lain-lain badan telah hadir dalam persidangan itu.

Sumber: Akhbar Utusan Melayu, 20 Oktober 1947

Artikel dari akhbar Utusan Melayu, 20 Okt 1947


Pihak Pergerakan Melayu Semenanjung daerah Batu Pahat, menurut kawat yang kita terima, akan mengadakan berbagai-bagai temasya laut dan darat kerana menyambut Perlembagaan Persekutuan Negeri Melayu pada siang dan malam 20 Oktober ini iaitu nampaknya sebagai satu gerakan balas terhadap hartal yang sangat ditentang oleh pihak kanan Melayu.

Adalah diberitakan di antara program-program sambutan yang dianjurkan oleh Pergerakan daerah Batu Pahat bagi merayakan Perlembagaan Federation itu maka pada hari Isnin 20 Oktober Tuan Haji Salim bin Bilal seorang daripada pengawas-pengawas pasar Melayu adalah membuka peluang percuma kepada sekalian penjaja-penjaja dan ahli-ahli perniagaan boleh datang berjual di pasar Melayu itu dengan percuma.

Berbagai-bagai rupa kedai jualan akan diadakan oleh Kaum Ibu Pergerakan dengan harga yang murah. Orang ramai Melayu am adalah dijemput datang membeli barang-barang jualan daripada kain baju, alatan perhiasan rumahtangga dan keperluan hari-hari. Jualan-jualan makanan dan minuman akan diadakan juga – kata wakil kita di Selatan.

Sumber: Akhbar Utusan Melayu, 20 Oktober 1947

Hari ini Hari Hartal

Jumaat, Oktober 19, 2007

Apa itu hartal?

Selamat Hari Hartal!

Apa itu Hartal? Sila tonton video ini untuk ketahui sejarah di sebalik Hari Hartal!

Untuk turut serta dalam kempen ini, klik sini: Kempen Hari Hartal

Kempen Hari Hartal

Bagi memperingati perjuangan rakyat menuntut demokrasi dari penjajahan kolonial, ingin aku cadangkan supaya tarikh 20 Oktober dijadikan sebagai hari perayaan kebangsaan dan cuti umum buat seluruh rakyat Malaysia sempena menyambut "HARI HARTAL" - hari perjuangan demokrasi rakyat.

Kalau kamu menyokong cadangan ini, pada 20.10.2007, sempena ulangtahun ke-60 aksi Hartal Se-Malaya, sila letakkan imej di atas dalam blog kamu, dengan tajuk "Selamat Hari Hartal!", berserta dengan embedded video dokumentari Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka* bagi menerangkan sejarah di sebalik Hari Hartal.

Kamu juga dijemput untuk kemukakan cadangan-cadangan bagaimana cara untuk kita menyambut dan merayakan Hari Hartal kelak.

Kempen ini akan terus berjalan sehingga Hari Hartal diiktiraf sebagai hari perayaan kebangsaan di Malaysia.

Terima kasih dan Selamat Hari Hartal!

Khamis, Oktober 18, 2007

10tahun @ youtube

Source format: mp4
Resolution: 320x240
Size: 95.8 MB

Klik sini untuk tonton

10tahun @ vimeo.com

Source format: avi
Resolution: 480x360
Size: 191.7 MB

Klik sini untuk tonton
Klik sini untuk download fail .avi

10tahun @ revver.com

Source format: mp4
Resolution: 320x240
Size: 95.8 MB

Klik sini untuk tonton
Klik sini untuk download fail .mov

10tahun @ brightcove.com

Source format: mp4
Resolution: 320x240
Size: 95.8 MB

Klik sini untuk tonton

10tahun @ veoh.com

Source format: mp4
Resolution: 320x240
Size: 95.8 MB

Klik sini untuk tonton
Klik sini untuk download fail .mp4*

*Kamu perlu install Veoh Player sebelum boleh download.

Rabu, Oktober 17, 2007

Hari ini dalam tahun 1947: 17 Oktober

Ulangtahun kedua Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya (PKMM)

Hari ini dalam tahun 1947, genaplah umur PKMM dua tahun setelah ditubuhkan pada 17 Oktober 1945 di Ipoh, Perak. Berlandaskan Dasar2 Party Kebangsaan Melayu, cita-cita asas penubuhannya ialah untuk mencipta sebuah negara kebangsaan yang merdeka berdasarkan kedaulatan rakyat.

Di bawah merupakan petikan dari program TV Hari Ini Dalam Sejarah yang pernah ke udara suatu ketika dahulu di RTM.

Pada hari ini dalam tahun 1945, Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya (PKMM) telah ditubuhkan. Parti ini lahir dari ruangan Jabatan Pengarang dan pentadbiran akhbar Suara Rakyat menjadikan ia parti politik Melayu yang pertama ditubuhkan selepas pendudukan Jepun di Tanah Melayu.

Matlamat utama perjuangan PKMM ialah menuntut kemerdekaan penuh bagi Tanah Melayu dan menentang sebarang bentuk penjajahan Inggeris. PKMM juga berusaha mengatasi masalah orang Melayu di segi pelajaran, sosial dan ekonomi serta kebebasan mencetak dan bersuara.

Sebulan selepas kelahirannya, PKMM telah menubuhkan cawangannya di beberapa buah negeri iaitu di Pulau Pinang, Perlis, Selangor, Perak, Melaka dan Singapura. PKMM menyebarkan pengaruhnya melalui akhbar-akhbar hariannya iaitu Suara Rakyat, Pelita Malaya dan Semboyan Baharu dan terbitan bulanan iaitu majalah Berjuang dan "Voice of the People".

Antara perjuangan PKMM pada peringkat awal penubuhannya ialah "Malaya adalah sebahagian dari Indonesia" dan "Sang Saka Merah Putih jadi cogan lambang Kebangsaan", iaitu perjuangan mewujudkan gagasan Melayu Raya/Indonesia Raya yang menyatukan negeri-negeri di Nusantara.

Berikut ialah lagu kebangsaan PKMM pada ketika itu, lagu "Indonesia Raya" yang telah digubah pada tahun 1928 yang kemudiannya menjadi lagu kebangsaan Republik Indonesia.

Jumaat, Oktober 12, 2007

Tayangan khas Hari Raya!

Dari rakyat untuk rakyat.

Sempena Aidilfitri yang mulia, aku tujukan filem ini kepada Yahya Nassim, Hashim Said, Majid Salleh, Zainuddin Andika, Lim Kean Chye dan semua veteran2 politik kiri yang telah banyak berjasa dan berjuang untuk membebaskan tanahair kita dari jiwa penghambaan dan penjajahan. Cita-cita rakyat untuk sebuah negara Merdeka yang lebih adil dan saksama untuk semua rakyat, akan terus kami perjuangkan sampai bila2. Selamat Hari Raya, kongsi itu kuasa.

Artikel dalam akhbar 光华日报 (Kwong Wah Yit Poh), 12 Oktober 2007


法米(Fahmi Reza)上周六及本周日从吉隆坡带来了他的《独立前十年》记录短片,全长33分钟的历史记录片,把我国学校历史教科书内“遗失”了的左派斗争国家独立的历史,通过当事人口述历史的镜头曝光。




随着年轻新生代渐渐走出大马,呼吸不一样的民主新鲜空气回国后,在马来同胞社群内也渐渐冒出诸如拍摄《最后共产党人》、《老乡可好》的阿米尔莫哈末(Amir Muhammad)及法米这样的年轻人,通过摄影机镜头,把当年被权贵刻意涂擦掉的历史片段重新寻找回来,摊开在21世纪的大马天空下。







Sumber: Kwong Wah e-Newspaper, 12 Oktober 2007.

Khamis, Oktober 11, 2007

Filem 1957 Hati Malaya

Filem wajib tonton tahun ini: 1957 Hati Malaya karya Shuhaimi Baba.

Menurut sinopsisnya:

"Filem ini memfokus kepada Tunku Abdul Rahman, pengasas kepada kejayaan Parti Perikatan, yang menjadi Perdana Menteri pertama Malaya pada tahun 1957, walaupun mendapat tentangan secara halus dari British yang mahu melambatkan kemerdekaan. Dan Datuk Onn Ja'afar, pengasas Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (UMNO) yang berjaya membangkitkan semangat nasionalisme orang Melayu menentang Malayan Union yang dicadangkan oleh British pada tahun 1946."

Dalam satu temubual untuk akhbar The Star, Shuhaimi Baba telah berkata:
“I really hope that the younger generation will watch the movie so they will know what great thinkers we had at that time and how people suffered before the country achieved its independence.”

Aku yakin pasti menarik untuk tonton filem ni selepas korang tonton 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' bagi melihat perspektif berbeza perjuangan rakyat menuntut kemerdekaan.

Seperti kata Hashim Said dalam filem aku:
"Jadi keputusannya... berpecah. Jadi, Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya ni memperjuangkan cara kiri, dan UMNO teruskan perjuangannya cara kanan. Itulah timbul dua parti politik... kiri dan kanan."

Lihat bawah untuk trailer "1957 Hati Malaya".

Rabu, Oktober 10, 2007

Kuiz cuba teka siapa mereka?

Dalam sequence PUTERA-AMCJA filem 'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' (minit ke 16:15) aku letak foto muka pemimpin badan2 politik yang bergabung dalam perikatan PUTERA-AMCJA (Pusat Tenaga Ra'ayat - All-Malaya Council of Joint Action).

Bagi menguji pengetahuan sejarah korang, cuba teka siapa nama2 mereka? Tuliskan jawapan dalam ruangan komen. Hadiah istimewa menanti pemenang!

Selasa, Oktober 09, 2007

Download 10tahun dari Rapidshare

Berita baik bagi mereka yang tak pakai BitTorrent!

'Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka' sudah boleh di download melalui Rapidshare. Terima kasih kepada manjbj yang telah memuatnaikkannya.

Format: RMVB
Resolution: 600x480
Source: AVI
Size: 141.1 MB

Klik sini untuk download 10tahun Part1
Klik sini untuk download 10tahun Part2

Download kedua2 fail .rar sebelum boleh unzip/expand. Bagi free-users kena tunggu 200minit antara setiap sesi download.